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* [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v2] malloc: fix malloc and free linear complexity
@ 2014-05-16 12:59 rsanford2
  2014-06-17 16:05 ` De Lara Guarch, Pablo
                   ` (3 more replies)
  0 siblings, 4 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: rsanford2 @ 2014-05-16 12:59 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: dev

Problems with lib rte_malloc:
 1. Rte_malloc searches a heap's entire free list looking for
    the best fit, resulting in linear complexity.
 2. Heaps store free blocks in a singly-linked list, resulting
    in linear complexity when rte_free needs to remove an
    adjacent block.
 3. The library inserts and removes free blocks with ad hoc,
    in-line code, rather than using linked-list functions or
    macros.

This patch addresses those problems as follows:
 1. Replace single free list with a handful of free lists.
    Each free list contains blocks of a specified size range,
    for example:
      list[0]: (0   , 2^7]
      list[1]: (2^7 , 2^9]
      list[2]: (2^9 , 2^11]
      list[3]: (2^11, 2^13]
      list[4]: (2^13, MAX_SIZE]

    When allocating a block, start at the first list that can
    contain a big enough block. Search subsequent lists, if
    necessary. Terminate the search as soon as we find a block
    that is big enough.
 2. Use doubly-linked lists, so that we can remove free blocks
    in constant time.
 3. Use BSD LIST macros, as defined in sys/queue.h and the
    QUEUE(3) man page.

Signed-off-by: Robert Sanford <rsanford2@gmail.com>
---
 lib/librte_eal/common/include/rte_malloc_heap.h |    6 +-
 lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c                 |  121 +++++++++++++++--------
 lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.h                 |   17 +++-
 lib/librte_malloc/malloc_heap.c                 |   67 ++++++-------
 4 files changed, 128 insertions(+), 83 deletions(-)

diff --git a/lib/librte_eal/common/include/rte_malloc_heap.h b/lib/librte_eal/common/include/rte_malloc_heap.h
index 5e139cf..1f5d653 100644
--- a/lib/librte_eal/common/include/rte_malloc_heap.h
+++ b/lib/librte_eal/common/include/rte_malloc_heap.h
@@ -35,14 +35,18 @@
 #define _RTE_MALLOC_HEAP_H_
 
 #include <stddef.h>
+#include <sys/queue.h>
 #include <rte_spinlock.h>
 
+/* Number of free lists per heap, grouped by size. */
+#define RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS  5
+
 /**
  * Structure to hold malloc heap
  */
 struct malloc_heap {
 	rte_spinlock_t lock;
-	struct malloc_elem * volatile free_head;
+	LIST_HEAD(, malloc_elem) free_head[RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS];
 	unsigned mz_count;
 	unsigned alloc_count;
 	size_t total_size;
diff --git a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c
index f0da640..13cd5d3 100644
--- a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c
+++ b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c
@@ -33,6 +33,7 @@
 #include <stdint.h>
 #include <stddef.h>
 #include <stdio.h>
+#include <string.h>
 #include <sys/queue.h>
 
 #include <rte_memory.h>
@@ -60,7 +61,8 @@ malloc_elem_init(struct malloc_elem *elem,
 {
 	elem->heap = heap;
 	elem->mz = mz;
-	elem->prev = elem->next_free = NULL;
+	elem->prev = NULL;
+	memset(&elem->free_list, 0, sizeof(elem->free_list));
 	elem->state = ELEM_FREE;
 	elem->size = size;
 	elem->pad = 0;
@@ -125,14 +127,71 @@ split_elem(struct malloc_elem *elem, struct malloc_elem *split_pt)
 }
 
 /*
+ * Given an element size, compute its freelist index.
+ * We free an element into the freelist containing similarly-sized elements.
+ * We try to allocate elements starting with the freelist containing
+ * similarly-sized elements, and if necessary, we search freelists
+ * containing larger elements.
+ *
+ * Example element size ranges for a heap with five free lists:
+ *   heap->free_head[0] - (0   , 2^7]
+ *   heap->free_head[1] - (2^7 , 2^9]
+ *   heap->free_head[2] - (2^9 , 2^11]
+ *   heap->free_head[3] - (2^11, 2^13]
+ *   heap->free_head[4] - (2^13, MAX_SIZE]
+ */
+size_t
+malloc_elem_free_list_index(size_t size)
+{
+#define MALLOC_MINSIZE_LOG2   7
+#define MALLOC_LOG2_INCREMENT 2
+
+	size_t log2;
+	size_t index;
+
+	if (size <= (1UL << MALLOC_MINSIZE_LOG2))
+		return 0;
+
+	/* Find next power of 2 >= size. */
+	log2 = sizeof(size) * 8 - __builtin_clzl(size-1);
+
+	/* Compute freelist index, based on log2(size). */
+	index = (log2 - MALLOC_MINSIZE_LOG2 + MALLOC_LOG2_INCREMENT - 1) /
+	        MALLOC_LOG2_INCREMENT;
+
+	return (index <= RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS-1?
+	        index: RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS-1);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Add the specified element to its heap's free list.
+ */
+void
+malloc_elem_free_list_insert(struct malloc_elem *elem)
+{
+	size_t idx = malloc_elem_free_list_index(elem->size - MALLOC_ELEM_HEADER_LEN);
+
+	elem->state = ELEM_FREE;
+	LIST_INSERT_HEAD(&elem->heap->free_head[idx], elem, free_list);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Remove the specified element from its heap's free list.
+ */
+static void
+elem_free_list_remove(struct malloc_elem *elem)
+{
+	LIST_REMOVE(elem, free_list);
+}
+
+/*
  * reserve a block of data in an existing malloc_elem. If the malloc_elem
  * is much larger than the data block requested, we split the element in two.
  * This function is only called from malloc_heap_alloc so parameter checking
  * is not done here, as it's done there previously.
  */
 struct malloc_elem *
-malloc_elem_alloc(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size,
-		unsigned align, struct malloc_elem *prev_free)
+malloc_elem_alloc(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size, unsigned align)
 {
 	struct malloc_elem *new_elem = elem_start_pt(elem, size, align);
 	const unsigned old_elem_size = (uintptr_t)new_elem - (uintptr_t)elem;
@@ -151,20 +210,20 @@ malloc_elem_alloc(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size,
 			set_header(new_elem);
 		}
 		/* remove element from free list */
-		if (prev_free == NULL)
-			elem->heap->free_head = elem->next_free;
-		else
-			prev_free->next_free = elem->next_free;
+		elem_free_list_remove(elem);
 
 		return new_elem;
 	}
 
 	/* we are going to split the element in two. The original element
-	 * remains free, and the new element is the one allocated, so no free list
-	 * changes need to be made.
+	 * remains free, and the new element is the one allocated.
+	 * Re-insert original element, in case its new size makes it
+	 * belong on a different list.
 	 */
+	elem_free_list_remove(elem);
 	split_elem(elem, new_elem);
 	new_elem->state = ELEM_BUSY;
+	malloc_elem_free_list_insert(elem);
 
 	return new_elem;
 }
@@ -182,25 +241,6 @@ join_elem(struct malloc_elem *elem1, struct malloc_elem *elem2)
 }
 
 /*
- * scan the free list, and remove the request element from that
- * free list. (Free list to scan is got from heap pointer in element)
- */
-static inline void
-remove_from_free_list(struct malloc_elem *elem)
-{
-	if (elem == elem->heap->free_head)
-		elem->heap->free_head = elem->next_free;
-	else{
-		struct malloc_elem *prev_free = elem->heap->free_head;
-		while (prev_free && prev_free->next_free != elem)
-			prev_free = prev_free->next_free;
-		if (!prev_free)
-			rte_panic("Corrupted free list\n");
-		prev_free->next_free = elem->next_free;
-	}
-}
-
-/*
  * free a malloc_elem block by adding it to the free list. If the
  * blocks either immediately before or immediately after newly freed block
  * are also free, the blocks are merged together.
@@ -214,21 +254,22 @@ malloc_elem_free(struct malloc_elem *elem)
 	rte_spinlock_lock(&(elem->heap->lock));
 	struct malloc_elem *next = RTE_PTR_ADD(elem, elem->size);
 	if (next->state == ELEM_FREE){
-		/* join to this one, and remove from free list */
+		/* remove from free list, join to this one */
+		elem_free_list_remove(next);
 		join_elem(elem, next);
-		remove_from_free_list(next);
 	}
 
 	/* check if previous element is free, if so join with it and return,
-	 * no need to update free list, as that element is already there
+	 * need to re-insert in free list, as that element's size is changing
 	 */
-	if (elem->prev != NULL && elem->prev->state == ELEM_FREE)
+	if (elem->prev != NULL && elem->prev->state == ELEM_FREE) {
+		elem_free_list_remove(elem->prev);
 		join_elem(elem->prev, elem);
+		malloc_elem_free_list_insert(elem->prev);
+	}
 	/* otherwise add ourselves to the free list */
 	else {
-		elem->next_free = elem->heap->free_head;
-		elem->heap->free_head = elem;
-		elem->state = ELEM_FREE;
+		malloc_elem_free_list_insert(elem);
 		elem->pad = 0;
 	}
 	/* decrease heap's count of allocated elements */
@@ -258,20 +299,18 @@ malloc_elem_resize(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size)
 	if (current_size + next->size < new_size)
 		goto err_return;
 
-	/* we now know the element fits, so join the two, then remove from free
-	 * list
+	/* we now know the element fits, so remove from free list,
+	 * join the two
 	 */
+	elem_free_list_remove(next);
 	join_elem(elem, next);
-	remove_from_free_list(next);
 
 	if (elem->size - new_size > MIN_DATA_SIZE + MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD){
 		/* now we have a big block together. Lets cut it down a bit, by splitting */
 		struct malloc_elem *split_pt = RTE_PTR_ADD(elem, new_size);
 		split_pt = RTE_PTR_ALIGN_CEIL(split_pt, CACHE_LINE_SIZE);
 		split_elem(elem, split_pt);
-		split_pt->state = ELEM_FREE;
-		split_pt->next_free = elem->heap->free_head;
-		elem->heap->free_head = split_pt;
+		malloc_elem_free_list_insert(split_pt);
 	}
 	rte_spinlock_unlock(&elem->heap->lock);
 	return 0;
diff --git a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.h b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.h
index eadecf9..63c69e1 100644
--- a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.h
+++ b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.h
@@ -46,7 +46,7 @@ enum elem_state {
 struct malloc_elem {
 	struct malloc_heap *heap;
 	struct malloc_elem *volatile prev;      /* points to prev elem in memzone */
-	struct malloc_elem *volatile next_free; /* to make list of free elements */
+	LIST_ENTRY(malloc_elem) free_list;      /* list of free elements in heap */
 	const struct rte_memzone *mz;
 	volatile enum elem_state state;
 	uint32_t pad;
@@ -156,8 +156,7 @@ malloc_elem_can_hold(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size, unsigned align);
  * is much larger than the data block requested, we split the element in two.
  */
 struct malloc_elem *
-malloc_elem_alloc(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size,
-		unsigned align, struct malloc_elem *prev_free);
+malloc_elem_alloc(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size, unsigned align);
 
 /*
  * free a malloc_elem block by adding it to the free list. If the
@@ -174,4 +173,16 @@ malloc_elem_free(struct malloc_elem *elem);
 int
 malloc_elem_resize(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size);
 
+/*
+ * Given an element size, compute its freelist index.
+ */
+size_t
+malloc_elem_free_list_index(size_t size);
+
+/*
+ * Add element to its heap's free list.
+ */
+void
+malloc_elem_free_list_insert(struct malloc_elem *elem);
+
 #endif /* MALLOC_ELEM_H_ */
diff --git a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_heap.c b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_heap.c
index 882749c..cfc02f1 100644
--- a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_heap.c
+++ b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_heap.c
@@ -114,9 +114,8 @@ malloc_heap_add_memzone(struct malloc_heap *heap, size_t size, unsigned align)
 	const unsigned elem_size = (uintptr_t)end_elem - (uintptr_t)start_elem;
 	malloc_elem_init(start_elem, heap, mz, elem_size);
 	malloc_elem_mkend(end_elem, start_elem);
+	malloc_elem_free_list_insert(start_elem);
 
-	start_elem->next_free = heap->free_head;
-	heap->free_head = start_elem;
 	/* increase heap total size by size of new memzone */
 	heap->total_size+=mz_size - MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD;
 	return 0;
@@ -125,35 +124,25 @@ malloc_heap_add_memzone(struct malloc_heap *heap, size_t size, unsigned align)
 /*
  * Iterates through the freelist for a heap to find a free element
  * which can store data of the required size and with the requested alignment.
- * Returns null on failure, or pointer to element on success, with the pointer
- * to the previous element in the list, if any, being returned in a parameter
- * (to make removing the element from the free list faster).
+ * Returns null on failure, or pointer to element on success.
  */
 static struct malloc_elem *
-find_suitable_element(struct malloc_heap *heap, size_t size,
-		unsigned align, struct malloc_elem **prev)
+find_suitable_element(struct malloc_heap *heap, size_t size, unsigned align)
 {
-	struct malloc_elem *elem, *min_elem, *min_prev;
-	size_t min_sz;
-
-	elem = heap->free_head;
-	min_elem = NULL;
-	min_prev = NULL;
-	min_sz = (size_t) SIZE_MAX;
-	*prev = NULL;
-
-	while(elem){
-		if (malloc_elem_can_hold(elem, size, align)) {
-			if (min_sz > elem->size) {
-				min_elem = elem;
-				*prev = min_prev;
-				min_sz = elem->size;
-			}
+	size_t idx;
+	struct malloc_elem *elem;
+
+	for (idx = malloc_elem_free_list_index(size);
+		idx < RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS; idx++)
+	{
+		for (elem = LIST_FIRST(&heap->free_head[idx]);
+			!!elem; elem = LIST_NEXT(elem, free_list))
+		{
+			if (malloc_elem_can_hold(elem, size, align))
+				return elem;
 		}
-		min_prev = elem;
-		elem = elem->next_free;
 	}
-	return (min_elem);
+	return NULL;
 }
 
 /*
@@ -169,15 +158,14 @@ malloc_heap_alloc(struct malloc_heap *heap,
 	size = CACHE_LINE_ROUNDUP(size);
 	align = CACHE_LINE_ROUNDUP(align);
 	rte_spinlock_lock(&heap->lock);
-	struct malloc_elem *prev, *elem = find_suitable_element(heap,
-			size, align, &prev);
+	struct malloc_elem *elem = find_suitable_element(heap, size, align);
 	if (elem == NULL){
 		if ((malloc_heap_add_memzone(heap, size, align)) == 0)
-			elem = find_suitable_element(heap, size, align, &prev);
+			elem = find_suitable_element(heap, size, align);
 	}
 
 	if (elem != NULL){
-		elem = malloc_elem_alloc(elem, size, align, prev);
+		elem = malloc_elem_alloc(elem, size, align);
 		/* increase heap's count of allocated elements */
 		heap->alloc_count++;
 	}
@@ -193,7 +181,8 @@ int
 malloc_heap_get_stats(const struct malloc_heap *heap,
 		struct rte_malloc_socket_stats *socket_stats)
 {
-	struct malloc_elem *elem = heap->free_head;
+	size_t idx;
+	struct malloc_elem *elem;
 
 	/* Initialise variables for heap */
 	socket_stats->free_count = 0;
@@ -201,13 +190,15 @@ malloc_heap_get_stats(const struct malloc_heap *heap,
 	socket_stats->greatest_free_size = 0;
 
 	/* Iterate through free list */
-	while(elem) {
-		socket_stats->free_count++;
-		socket_stats->heap_freesz_bytes += elem->size;
-		if (elem->size > socket_stats->greatest_free_size)
-			socket_stats->greatest_free_size = elem->size;
-
-		elem = elem->next_free;
+	for (idx = 0; idx < RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS; idx++) {
+		for (elem = LIST_FIRST(&heap->free_head[idx]);
+			!!elem; elem = LIST_NEXT(elem, free_list))
+		{
+			socket_stats->free_count++;
+			socket_stats->heap_freesz_bytes += elem->size;
+			if (elem->size > socket_stats->greatest_free_size)
+				socket_stats->greatest_free_size = elem->size;
+		}
 	}
 	/* Get stats on overall heap and allocated memory on this heap */
 	socket_stats->heap_totalsz_bytes = heap->total_size;
-- 
1.7.1

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* Re: [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v2] malloc: fix malloc and free linear complexity
  2014-05-16 12:59 [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v2] malloc: fix malloc and free linear complexity rsanford2
@ 2014-06-17 16:05 ` De Lara Guarch, Pablo
  2014-06-17 16:29   ` Robert Sanford
  2014-06-23 21:17 ` [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v3 0/2] " Robert Sanford
                   ` (2 subsequent siblings)
  3 siblings, 1 reply; 8+ messages in thread
From: De Lara Guarch, Pablo @ 2014-06-17 16:05 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: rsanford2, dev

> -----Original Message-----
> From: dev [mailto:dev-bounces@dpdk.org] On Behalf Of
> rsanford2@gmail.com
> Sent: Friday, May 16, 2014 1:59 PM
> To: dev@dpdk.org
> Subject: [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v2] malloc: fix malloc and free linear complexity
> 
> Problems with lib rte_malloc:
>  1. Rte_malloc searches a heap's entire free list looking for
>     the best fit, resulting in linear complexity.
>  2. Heaps store free blocks in a singly-linked list, resulting
>     in linear complexity when rte_free needs to remove an
>     adjacent block.
>  3. The library inserts and removes free blocks with ad hoc,
>     in-line code, rather than using linked-list functions or
>     macros.
> 
> This patch addresses those problems as follows:
>  1. Replace single free list with a handful of free lists.
>     Each free list contains blocks of a specified size range,
>     for example:
>       list[0]: (0   , 2^7]
>       list[1]: (2^7 , 2^9]
>       list[2]: (2^9 , 2^11]
>       list[3]: (2^11, 2^13]
>       list[4]: (2^13, MAX_SIZE]
> 
>     When allocating a block, start at the first list that can
>     contain a big enough block. Search subsequent lists, if
>     necessary. Terminate the search as soon as we find a block
>     that is big enough.
>  2. Use doubly-linked lists, so that we can remove free blocks
>     in constant time.
>  3. Use BSD LIST macros, as defined in sys/queue.h and the
>     QUEUE(3) man page.
> 
> Signed-off-by: Robert Sanford <rsanford2@gmail.com>
> ---
>  lib/librte_eal/common/include/rte_malloc_heap.h |    6 +-
>  lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c                 |  121 +++++++++++++++--------
>  lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.h                 |   17 +++-
>  lib/librte_malloc/malloc_heap.c                 |   67 ++++++-------
>  4 files changed, 128 insertions(+), 83 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/lib/librte_eal/common/include/rte_malloc_heap.h
> b/lib/librte_eal/common/include/rte_malloc_heap.h
> index 5e139cf..1f5d653 100644
> --- a/lib/librte_eal/common/include/rte_malloc_heap.h
> +++ b/lib/librte_eal/common/include/rte_malloc_heap.h
> @@ -35,14 +35,18 @@
>  #define _RTE_MALLOC_HEAP_H_
> 
>  #include <stddef.h>
> +#include <sys/queue.h>
>  #include <rte_spinlock.h>
> 
> +/* Number of free lists per heap, grouped by size. */
> +#define RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS  5
> +
>  /**
>   * Structure to hold malloc heap
>   */
>  struct malloc_heap {
>  	rte_spinlock_t lock;
> -	struct malloc_elem * volatile free_head;
> +	LIST_HEAD(, malloc_elem) free_head[RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS];
>  	unsigned mz_count;
>  	unsigned alloc_count;
>  	size_t total_size;
> diff --git a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c
> index f0da640..13cd5d3 100644
> --- a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c
> +++ b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c
> @@ -33,6 +33,7 @@
>  #include <stdint.h>
>  #include <stddef.h>
>  #include <stdio.h>
> +#include <string.h>
>  #include <sys/queue.h>
> 
>  #include <rte_memory.h>
> @@ -60,7 +61,8 @@ malloc_elem_init(struct malloc_elem *elem,
>  {
>  	elem->heap = heap;
>  	elem->mz = mz;
> -	elem->prev = elem->next_free = NULL;
> +	elem->prev = NULL;
> +	memset(&elem->free_list, 0, sizeof(elem->free_list));
>  	elem->state = ELEM_FREE;
>  	elem->size = size;
>  	elem->pad = 0;
> @@ -125,14 +127,71 @@ split_elem(struct malloc_elem *elem, struct
> malloc_elem *split_pt)
>  }
> 
>  /*
> + * Given an element size, compute its freelist index.
> + * We free an element into the freelist containing similarly-sized elements.
> + * We try to allocate elements starting with the freelist containing
> + * similarly-sized elements, and if necessary, we search freelists
> + * containing larger elements.
> + *
> + * Example element size ranges for a heap with five free lists:
> + *   heap->free_head[0] - (0   , 2^7]
> + *   heap->free_head[1] - (2^7 , 2^9]
> + *   heap->free_head[2] - (2^9 , 2^11]
> + *   heap->free_head[3] - (2^11, 2^13]
> + *   heap->free_head[4] - (2^13, MAX_SIZE]
> + */
> +size_t
> +malloc_elem_free_list_index(size_t size)
> +{
> +#define MALLOC_MINSIZE_LOG2   7
> +#define MALLOC_LOG2_INCREMENT 2
> +
> +	size_t log2;
> +	size_t index;
> +
> +	if (size <= (1UL << MALLOC_MINSIZE_LOG2))
> +		return 0;
> +
> +	/* Find next power of 2 >= size. */
> +	log2 = sizeof(size) * 8 - __builtin_clzl(size-1);
> +
> +	/* Compute freelist index, based on log2(size). */
> +	index = (log2 - MALLOC_MINSIZE_LOG2 +
> MALLOC_LOG2_INCREMENT - 1) /
> +	        MALLOC_LOG2_INCREMENT;
> +
> +	return (index <= RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS-1?
> +	        index: RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS-1);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Add the specified element to its heap's free list.
> + */
> +void
> +malloc_elem_free_list_insert(struct malloc_elem *elem)
> +{
> +	size_t idx = malloc_elem_free_list_index(elem->size -
> MALLOC_ELEM_HEADER_LEN);
> +
> +	elem->state = ELEM_FREE;
> +	LIST_INSERT_HEAD(&elem->heap->free_head[idx], elem, free_list);
> +}
> +
> +/*
> + * Remove the specified element from its heap's free list.
> + */
> +static void
> +elem_free_list_remove(struct malloc_elem *elem)
> +{
> +	LIST_REMOVE(elem, free_list);
> +}
> +
> +/*
>   * reserve a block of data in an existing malloc_elem. If the malloc_elem
>   * is much larger than the data block requested, we split the element in two.
>   * This function is only called from malloc_heap_alloc so parameter checking
>   * is not done here, as it's done there previously.
>   */
>  struct malloc_elem *
> -malloc_elem_alloc(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size,
> -		unsigned align, struct malloc_elem *prev_free)
> +malloc_elem_alloc(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size, unsigned align)
>  {
>  	struct malloc_elem *new_elem = elem_start_pt(elem, size, align);
>  	const unsigned old_elem_size = (uintptr_t)new_elem -
> (uintptr_t)elem;
> @@ -151,20 +210,20 @@ malloc_elem_alloc(struct malloc_elem *elem,
> size_t size,
>  			set_header(new_elem);
>  		}
>  		/* remove element from free list */
> -		if (prev_free == NULL)
> -			elem->heap->free_head = elem->next_free;
> -		else
> -			prev_free->next_free = elem->next_free;
> +		elem_free_list_remove(elem);
> 
>  		return new_elem;
>  	}
> 
>  	/* we are going to split the element in two. The original element
> -	 * remains free, and the new element is the one allocated, so no free
> list
> -	 * changes need to be made.
> +	 * remains free, and the new element is the one allocated.
> +	 * Re-insert original element, in case its new size makes it
> +	 * belong on a different list.
>  	 */
> +	elem_free_list_remove(elem);
>  	split_elem(elem, new_elem);
>  	new_elem->state = ELEM_BUSY;
> +	malloc_elem_free_list_insert(elem);
> 
>  	return new_elem;
>  }
> @@ -182,25 +241,6 @@ join_elem(struct malloc_elem *elem1, struct
> malloc_elem *elem2)
>  }
> 
>  /*
> - * scan the free list, and remove the request element from that
> - * free list. (Free list to scan is got from heap pointer in element)
> - */
> -static inline void
> -remove_from_free_list(struct malloc_elem *elem)
> -{
> -	if (elem == elem->heap->free_head)
> -		elem->heap->free_head = elem->next_free;
> -	else{
> -		struct malloc_elem *prev_free = elem->heap->free_head;
> -		while (prev_free && prev_free->next_free != elem)
> -			prev_free = prev_free->next_free;
> -		if (!prev_free)
> -			rte_panic("Corrupted free list\n");
> -		prev_free->next_free = elem->next_free;
> -	}
> -}
> -
> -/*
>   * free a malloc_elem block by adding it to the free list. If the
>   * blocks either immediately before or immediately after newly freed block
>   * are also free, the blocks are merged together.
> @@ -214,21 +254,22 @@ malloc_elem_free(struct malloc_elem *elem)
>  	rte_spinlock_lock(&(elem->heap->lock));
>  	struct malloc_elem *next = RTE_PTR_ADD(elem, elem->size);
>  	if (next->state == ELEM_FREE){
> -		/* join to this one, and remove from free list */
> +		/* remove from free list, join to this one */
> +		elem_free_list_remove(next);
>  		join_elem(elem, next);
> -		remove_from_free_list(next);
>  	}
> 
>  	/* check if previous element is free, if so join with it and return,
> -	 * no need to update free list, as that element is already there
> +	 * need to re-insert in free list, as that element's size is changing
>  	 */
> -	if (elem->prev != NULL && elem->prev->state == ELEM_FREE)
> +	if (elem->prev != NULL && elem->prev->state == ELEM_FREE) {
> +		elem_free_list_remove(elem->prev);
>  		join_elem(elem->prev, elem);
> +		malloc_elem_free_list_insert(elem->prev);
> +	}
>  	/* otherwise add ourselves to the free list */
>  	else {
> -		elem->next_free = elem->heap->free_head;
> -		elem->heap->free_head = elem;
> -		elem->state = ELEM_FREE;
> +		malloc_elem_free_list_insert(elem);
>  		elem->pad = 0;
>  	}
>  	/* decrease heap's count of allocated elements */
> @@ -258,20 +299,18 @@ malloc_elem_resize(struct malloc_elem *elem,
> size_t size)
>  	if (current_size + next->size < new_size)
>  		goto err_return;
> 
> -	/* we now know the element fits, so join the two, then remove from
> free
> -	 * list
> +	/* we now know the element fits, so remove from free list,
> +	 * join the two
>  	 */
> +	elem_free_list_remove(next);
>  	join_elem(elem, next);
> -	remove_from_free_list(next);
> 
>  	if (elem->size - new_size > MIN_DATA_SIZE +
> MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD){
>  		/* now we have a big block together. Lets cut it down a bit,
> by splitting */
>  		struct malloc_elem *split_pt = RTE_PTR_ADD(elem,
> new_size);
>  		split_pt = RTE_PTR_ALIGN_CEIL(split_pt, CACHE_LINE_SIZE);
>  		split_elem(elem, split_pt);
> -		split_pt->state = ELEM_FREE;
> -		split_pt->next_free = elem->heap->free_head;
> -		elem->heap->free_head = split_pt;
> +		malloc_elem_free_list_insert(split_pt);
>  	}
>  	rte_spinlock_unlock(&elem->heap->lock);
>  	return 0;
> diff --git a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.h
> b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.h
> index eadecf9..63c69e1 100644
> --- a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.h
> +++ b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.h
> @@ -46,7 +46,7 @@ enum elem_state {
>  struct malloc_elem {
>  	struct malloc_heap *heap;
>  	struct malloc_elem *volatile prev;      /* points to prev elem in
> memzone */
> -	struct malloc_elem *volatile next_free; /* to make list of free
> elements */
> +	LIST_ENTRY(malloc_elem) free_list;      /* list of free elements in heap
> */
>  	const struct rte_memzone *mz;
>  	volatile enum elem_state state;
>  	uint32_t pad;
> @@ -156,8 +156,7 @@ malloc_elem_can_hold(struct malloc_elem *elem,
> size_t size, unsigned align);
>   * is much larger than the data block requested, we split the element in two.
>   */
>  struct malloc_elem *
> -malloc_elem_alloc(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size,
> -		unsigned align, struct malloc_elem *prev_free);
> +malloc_elem_alloc(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size, unsigned align);
> 
>  /*
>   * free a malloc_elem block by adding it to the free list. If the
> @@ -174,4 +173,16 @@ malloc_elem_free(struct malloc_elem *elem);
>  int
>  malloc_elem_resize(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size);
> 
> +/*
> + * Given an element size, compute its freelist index.
> + */
> +size_t
> +malloc_elem_free_list_index(size_t size);
> +
> +/*
> + * Add element to its heap's free list.
> + */
> +void
> +malloc_elem_free_list_insert(struct malloc_elem *elem);
> +
>  #endif /* MALLOC_ELEM_H_ */
> diff --git a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_heap.c b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_heap.c
> index 882749c..cfc02f1 100644
> --- a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_heap.c
> +++ b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_heap.c
> @@ -114,9 +114,8 @@ malloc_heap_add_memzone(struct malloc_heap
> *heap, size_t size, unsigned align)
>  	const unsigned elem_size = (uintptr_t)end_elem -
> (uintptr_t)start_elem;
>  	malloc_elem_init(start_elem, heap, mz, elem_size);
>  	malloc_elem_mkend(end_elem, start_elem);
> +	malloc_elem_free_list_insert(start_elem);
> 
> -	start_elem->next_free = heap->free_head;
> -	heap->free_head = start_elem;
>  	/* increase heap total size by size of new memzone */
>  	heap->total_size+=mz_size - MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD;
>  	return 0;
> @@ -125,35 +124,25 @@ malloc_heap_add_memzone(struct malloc_heap
> *heap, size_t size, unsigned align)
>  /*
>   * Iterates through the freelist for a heap to find a free element
>   * which can store data of the required size and with the requested
> alignment.
> - * Returns null on failure, or pointer to element on success, with the pointer
> - * to the previous element in the list, if any, being returned in a parameter
> - * (to make removing the element from the free list faster).
> + * Returns null on failure, or pointer to element on success.
>   */
>  static struct malloc_elem *
> -find_suitable_element(struct malloc_heap *heap, size_t size,
> -		unsigned align, struct malloc_elem **prev)
> +find_suitable_element(struct malloc_heap *heap, size_t size, unsigned
> align)
>  {
> -	struct malloc_elem *elem, *min_elem, *min_prev;
> -	size_t min_sz;
> -
> -	elem = heap->free_head;
> -	min_elem = NULL;
> -	min_prev = NULL;
> -	min_sz = (size_t) SIZE_MAX;
> -	*prev = NULL;
> -
> -	while(elem){
> -		if (malloc_elem_can_hold(elem, size, align)) {
> -			if (min_sz > elem->size) {
> -				min_elem = elem;
> -				*prev = min_prev;
> -				min_sz = elem->size;
> -			}
> +	size_t idx;
> +	struct malloc_elem *elem;
> +
> +	for (idx = malloc_elem_free_list_index(size);
> +		idx < RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS; idx++)
> +	{
> +		for (elem = LIST_FIRST(&heap->free_head[idx]);
> +			!!elem; elem = LIST_NEXT(elem, free_list))
> +		{
> +			if (malloc_elem_can_hold(elem, size, align))
> +				return elem;
>  		}
> -		min_prev = elem;
> -		elem = elem->next_free;
>  	}
> -	return (min_elem);
> +	return NULL;
>  }
> 
>  /*
> @@ -169,15 +158,14 @@ malloc_heap_alloc(struct malloc_heap *heap,
>  	size = CACHE_LINE_ROUNDUP(size);
>  	align = CACHE_LINE_ROUNDUP(align);
>  	rte_spinlock_lock(&heap->lock);
> -	struct malloc_elem *prev, *elem = find_suitable_element(heap,
> -			size, align, &prev);
> +	struct malloc_elem *elem = find_suitable_element(heap, size, align);
>  	if (elem == NULL){
>  		if ((malloc_heap_add_memzone(heap, size, align)) == 0)
> -			elem = find_suitable_element(heap, size, align,
> &prev);
> +			elem = find_suitable_element(heap, size, align);
>  	}
> 
>  	if (elem != NULL){
> -		elem = malloc_elem_alloc(elem, size, align, prev);
> +		elem = malloc_elem_alloc(elem, size, align);
>  		/* increase heap's count of allocated elements */
>  		heap->alloc_count++;
>  	}
> @@ -193,7 +181,8 @@ int
>  malloc_heap_get_stats(const struct malloc_heap *heap,
>  		struct rte_malloc_socket_stats *socket_stats)
>  {
> -	struct malloc_elem *elem = heap->free_head;
> +	size_t idx;
> +	struct malloc_elem *elem;
> 
>  	/* Initialise variables for heap */
>  	socket_stats->free_count = 0;
> @@ -201,13 +190,15 @@ malloc_heap_get_stats(const struct malloc_heap
> *heap,
>  	socket_stats->greatest_free_size = 0;
> 
>  	/* Iterate through free list */
> -	while(elem) {
> -		socket_stats->free_count++;
> -		socket_stats->heap_freesz_bytes += elem->size;
> -		if (elem->size > socket_stats->greatest_free_size)
> -			socket_stats->greatest_free_size = elem->size;
> -
> -		elem = elem->next_free;
> +	for (idx = 0; idx < RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS; idx++) {
> +		for (elem = LIST_FIRST(&heap->free_head[idx]);
> +			!!elem; elem = LIST_NEXT(elem, free_list))
> +		{
> +			socket_stats->free_count++;
> +			socket_stats->heap_freesz_bytes += elem->size;
> +			if (elem->size > socket_stats->greatest_free_size)
> +				socket_stats->greatest_free_size = elem-
> >size;
> +		}
>  	}
>  	/* Get stats on overall heap and allocated memory on this heap */
>  	socket_stats->heap_totalsz_bytes = heap->total_size;
> --
> 1.7.1

Hi Robert,

Overall patch looks OK, but malloc unit tests fail on the last test (test_multi_alloc_statistics). Apparently, the biggest free chunk size changes as it allocates some memory, whereas in the previous implementation, this size did not change. I wonder if unit test is wrong or if there is actually an issue here. Could you look at this as well?

Thanks,
Pablo

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* Re: [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v2] malloc: fix malloc and free linear complexity
  2014-06-17 16:05 ` De Lara Guarch, Pablo
@ 2014-06-17 16:29   ` Robert Sanford
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: Robert Sanford @ 2014-06-17 16:29 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: De Lara Guarch, Pablo; +Cc: dev

Hi Pablo,

> Overall patch looks OK, but malloc unit tests fail on the last test
(test_multi_alloc_statistics).
> Apparently, the biggest free chunk size changes as it allocates some
memory, whereas in
> the previous implementation, this size did not change. I wonder if unit
test is wrong or if there
> is actually an issue here. Could you look at this as well?

Thanks for your comments. Yes, I will investigate problems with the malloc
unit tests.

BTW, I intend to make one other adjustment to the previous (v2) set of
changes:

--- a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c
+++ b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c
@@ -143,7 +143,7 @@ split_elem(struct malloc_elem *elem, struct malloc_elem
*split_pt)
 size_t
 malloc_elem_free_list_index(size_t size)
 {
-#define MALLOC_MINSIZE_LOG2   7
+#define MALLOC_MINSIZE_LOG2   8
 #define MALLOC_LOG2_INCREMENT 2

--
Robert

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v3 0/2] malloc: fix malloc and free linear complexity
  2014-05-16 12:59 [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v2] malloc: fix malloc and free linear complexity rsanford2
  2014-06-17 16:05 ` De Lara Guarch, Pablo
@ 2014-06-23 21:17 ` Robert Sanford
  2014-06-24 14:55   ` De Lara Guarch, Pablo
  2014-06-23 21:17 ` [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v3 1/2] " Robert Sanford
  2014-06-23 21:17 ` [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v3 2/2] " Robert Sanford
  3 siblings, 1 reply; 8+ messages in thread
From: Robert Sanford @ 2014-06-23 21:17 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: dev

Comments on previous versions of this patch:
http://dpdk.org/ml/archives/dev/2014-May/002297.html
http://dpdk.org/ml/archives/dev/2014-June/003518.html

Additional changes from original to v3:
* Reduce the minimum-sized block that we put on a free list when
  splitting a larger block, from 192 to 64. Although memory is
  plentiful, why waste 64 and 128-byte (plus overhead) blocks?

-#define MIN_DATA_SIZE (CACHE_LINE_SIZE * 2)
+#define MIN_DATA_SIZE (CACHE_LINE_SIZE)

-       if (old_elem_size <= MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD + MIN_DATA_SIZE){
+       if (old_elem_size < MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD + MIN_DATA_SIZE){

-       if (elem->size - new_size > MIN_DATA_SIZE + MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD){
+       if (elem->size - new_size >= MIN_DATA_SIZE + MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD){

Changes from v2 to v3:
* Change the size ranges of the five free lists per heap. The first
  list will effectively contain blocks of size [64,256].

-  *   heap->free_head[0] - (0   , 2^7]
-  *   heap->free_head[1] - (2^7 , 2^9]
-  *   heap->free_head[2] - (2^9 , 2^11]
-  *   heap->free_head[3] - (2^11, 2^13]
-  *   heap->free_head[4] - (2^13, MAX_SIZE]
+  *   heap->free_head[0] - (0   , 2^8]
+  *   heap->free_head[1] - (2^8 , 2^10]
+  *   heap->free_head[2] - (2^10 ,2^12]
+  *   heap->free_head[3] - (2^12, 2^14]
+  *   heap->free_head[4] - (2^14, MAX_SIZE]

- #define MALLOC_MINSIZE_LOG2   7
+ #define MALLOC_MINSIZE_LOG2   8

* Fix typos and false assumptions in malloc unit tests. Even without
  linked-list enhancements to lib rte_malloc, malloc autotest fails
  every second (2nd) run.

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v3 1/2] malloc: fix malloc and free linear complexity
  2014-05-16 12:59 [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v2] malloc: fix malloc and free linear complexity rsanford2
  2014-06-17 16:05 ` De Lara Guarch, Pablo
  2014-06-23 21:17 ` [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v3 0/2] " Robert Sanford
@ 2014-06-23 21:17 ` Robert Sanford
  2014-06-23 21:17 ` [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v3 2/2] " Robert Sanford
  3 siblings, 0 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: Robert Sanford @ 2014-06-23 21:17 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: dev

Problems with lib rte_malloc:
1. Rte_malloc searches a heap's entire free list looking for the best
   fit, resulting in linear complexity.
2. Heaps store free blocks in a singly-linked list, resulting in
   linear complexity when rte_free needs to remove an adjacent block.
3. The library inserts and removes free blocks with ad hoc, in-line
   code, rather than using linked-list functions or macros.
4. The library wastes potential small blocks of size 64 and 128 bytes
   (plus overhead of 64 bytes) as padding when reusing free blocks or
   resizing allocated blocks.

This patch addresses those problems as follows:
1. Replace single free list with a handful of free lists. Each free
   list contains blocks of a specified size range, for example:
     list[0]: (0   , 2^8]
     list[1]: (2^8 , 2^10]
     list[2]: (2^10, 2^12]
     list[3]: (2^12, 2^14]
     list[4]: (2^14, MAX_SIZE]

   When allocating a block, start at the first list that can contain
   a big enough block. Search subsequent lists, if necessary.
   Terminate the search as soon as we find a block that is big enough.
2. Use doubly-linked lists, so that we can remove free blocks in
   constant time.
3. Use BSD LIST macros, as defined in sys/queue.h and the QUEUE(3)
   man page.
4. Change code to utilize small blocks of data size 64 and 128, when
   splitting larger blocks.

Signed-off-by: Robert Sanford <rsanford2@gmail.com>

---
 lib/librte_eal/common/include/rte_malloc_heap.h |    6 +-
 lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c                 |  127 +++++++++++++++--------
 lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.h                 |   17 +++-
 lib/librte_malloc/malloc_heap.c                 |   67 +++++-------
 4 files changed, 131 insertions(+), 86 deletions(-)

diff --git a/lib/librte_eal/common/include/rte_malloc_heap.h b/lib/librte_eal/common/include/rte_malloc_heap.h
index fc4fd0a..f727b7a 100644
--- a/lib/librte_eal/common/include/rte_malloc_heap.h
+++ b/lib/librte_eal/common/include/rte_malloc_heap.h
@@ -35,14 +35,18 @@
 #define _RTE_MALLOC_HEAP_H_
 
 #include <stddef.h>
+#include <sys/queue.h>
 #include <rte_spinlock.h>
 
+/* Number of free lists per heap, grouped by size. */
+#define RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS  5
+
 /**
  * Structure to hold malloc heap
  */
 struct malloc_heap {
 	rte_spinlock_t lock;
-	struct malloc_elem * volatile free_head;
+	LIST_HEAD(, malloc_elem) free_head[RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS];
 	unsigned mz_count;
 	unsigned alloc_count;
 	size_t total_size;
diff --git a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c
index 172da69..75a94d0 100644
--- a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c
+++ b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.c
@@ -33,6 +33,7 @@
 #include <stdint.h>
 #include <stddef.h>
 #include <stdio.h>
+#include <string.h>
 #include <sys/queue.h>
 
 #include <rte_memory.h>
@@ -49,7 +50,7 @@
 #include "malloc_elem.h"
 #include "malloc_heap.h"
 
-#define MIN_DATA_SIZE (CACHE_LINE_SIZE * 2)
+#define MIN_DATA_SIZE (CACHE_LINE_SIZE)
 
 /*
  * initialise a general malloc_elem header structure
@@ -60,7 +61,8 @@ malloc_elem_init(struct malloc_elem *elem,
 {
 	elem->heap = heap;
 	elem->mz = mz;
-	elem->prev = elem->next_free = NULL;
+	elem->prev = NULL;
+	memset(&elem->free_list, 0, sizeof(elem->free_list));
 	elem->state = ELEM_FREE;
 	elem->size = size;
 	elem->pad = 0;
@@ -125,19 +127,76 @@ split_elem(struct malloc_elem *elem, struct malloc_elem *split_pt)
 }
 
 /*
+ * Given an element size, compute its freelist index.
+ * We free an element into the freelist containing similarly-sized elements.
+ * We try to allocate elements starting with the freelist containing
+ * similarly-sized elements, and if necessary, we search freelists
+ * containing larger elements.
+ *
+ * Example element size ranges for a heap with five free lists:
+ *   heap->free_head[0] - (0   , 2^8]
+ *   heap->free_head[1] - (2^8 , 2^10]
+ *   heap->free_head[2] - (2^10 ,2^12]
+ *   heap->free_head[3] - (2^12, 2^14]
+ *   heap->free_head[4] - (2^14, MAX_SIZE]
+ */
+size_t
+malloc_elem_free_list_index(size_t size)
+{
+#define MALLOC_MINSIZE_LOG2   8
+#define MALLOC_LOG2_INCREMENT 2
+
+	size_t log2;
+	size_t index;
+
+	if (size <= (1UL << MALLOC_MINSIZE_LOG2))
+		return 0;
+
+	/* Find next power of 2 >= size. */
+	log2 = sizeof(size) * 8 - __builtin_clzl(size-1);
+
+	/* Compute freelist index, based on log2(size). */
+	index = (log2 - MALLOC_MINSIZE_LOG2 + MALLOC_LOG2_INCREMENT - 1) /
+	        MALLOC_LOG2_INCREMENT;
+
+	return (index <= RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS-1?
+	        index: RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS-1);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Add the specified element to its heap's free list.
+ */
+void
+malloc_elem_free_list_insert(struct malloc_elem *elem)
+{
+	size_t idx = malloc_elem_free_list_index(elem->size - MALLOC_ELEM_HEADER_LEN);
+
+	elem->state = ELEM_FREE;
+	LIST_INSERT_HEAD(&elem->heap->free_head[idx], elem, free_list);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Remove the specified element from its heap's free list.
+ */
+static void
+elem_free_list_remove(struct malloc_elem *elem)
+{
+	LIST_REMOVE(elem, free_list);
+}
+
+/*
  * reserve a block of data in an existing malloc_elem. If the malloc_elem
  * is much larger than the data block requested, we split the element in two.
  * This function is only called from malloc_heap_alloc so parameter checking
  * is not done here, as it's done there previously.
  */
 struct malloc_elem *
-malloc_elem_alloc(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size,
-		unsigned align, struct malloc_elem *prev_free)
+malloc_elem_alloc(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size, unsigned align)
 {
 	struct malloc_elem *new_elem = elem_start_pt(elem, size, align);
 	const unsigned old_elem_size = (uintptr_t)new_elem - (uintptr_t)elem;
 
-	if (old_elem_size <= MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD + MIN_DATA_SIZE){
+	if (old_elem_size < MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD + MIN_DATA_SIZE){
 		/* don't split it, pad the element instead */
 		elem->state = ELEM_BUSY;
 		elem->pad = old_elem_size;
@@ -151,20 +210,20 @@ malloc_elem_alloc(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size,
 			set_header(new_elem);
 		}
 		/* remove element from free list */
-		if (prev_free == NULL)
-			elem->heap->free_head = elem->next_free;
-		else
-			prev_free->next_free = elem->next_free;
+		elem_free_list_remove(elem);
 
 		return new_elem;
 	}
 
 	/* we are going to split the element in two. The original element
-	 * remains free, and the new element is the one allocated, so no free list
-	 * changes need to be made.
+	 * remains free, and the new element is the one allocated.
+	 * Re-insert original element, in case its new size makes it
+	 * belong on a different list.
 	 */
+	elem_free_list_remove(elem);
 	split_elem(elem, new_elem);
 	new_elem->state = ELEM_BUSY;
+	malloc_elem_free_list_insert(elem);
 
 	return new_elem;
 }
@@ -182,25 +241,6 @@ join_elem(struct malloc_elem *elem1, struct malloc_elem *elem2)
 }
 
 /*
- * scan the free list, and remove the request element from that
- * free list. (Free list to scan is got from heap pointer in element)
- */
-static inline void
-remove_from_free_list(struct malloc_elem *elem)
-{
-	if (elem == elem->heap->free_head)
-		elem->heap->free_head = elem->next_free;
-	else{
-		struct malloc_elem *prev_free = elem->heap->free_head;
-		while (prev_free && prev_free->next_free != elem)
-			prev_free = prev_free->next_free;
-		if (!prev_free)
-			rte_panic("Corrupted free list\n");
-		prev_free->next_free = elem->next_free;
-	}
-}
-
-/*
  * free a malloc_elem block by adding it to the free list. If the
  * blocks either immediately before or immediately after newly freed block
  * are also free, the blocks are merged together.
@@ -214,21 +254,22 @@ malloc_elem_free(struct malloc_elem *elem)
 	rte_spinlock_lock(&(elem->heap->lock));
 	struct malloc_elem *next = RTE_PTR_ADD(elem, elem->size);
 	if (next->state == ELEM_FREE){
-		/* join to this one, and remove from free list */
+		/* remove from free list, join to this one */
+		elem_free_list_remove(next);
 		join_elem(elem, next);
-		remove_from_free_list(next);
 	}
 
 	/* check if previous element is free, if so join with it and return,
-	 * no need to update free list, as that element is already there
+	 * need to re-insert in free list, as that element's size is changing
 	 */
-	if (elem->prev != NULL && elem->prev->state == ELEM_FREE)
+	if (elem->prev != NULL && elem->prev->state == ELEM_FREE) {
+		elem_free_list_remove(elem->prev);
 		join_elem(elem->prev, elem);
+		malloc_elem_free_list_insert(elem->prev);
+	}
 	/* otherwise add ourselves to the free list */
 	else {
-		elem->next_free = elem->heap->free_head;
-		elem->heap->free_head = elem;
-		elem->state = ELEM_FREE;
+		malloc_elem_free_list_insert(elem);
 		elem->pad = 0;
 	}
 	/* decrease heap's count of allocated elements */
@@ -258,20 +299,18 @@ malloc_elem_resize(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size)
 	if (current_size + next->size < new_size)
 		goto err_return;
 
-	/* we now know the element fits, so join the two, then remove from free
-	 * list
+	/* we now know the element fits, so remove from free list,
+	 * join the two
 	 */
+	elem_free_list_remove(next);
 	join_elem(elem, next);
-	remove_from_free_list(next);
 
-	if (elem->size - new_size > MIN_DATA_SIZE + MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD){
+	if (elem->size - new_size >= MIN_DATA_SIZE + MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD){
 		/* now we have a big block together. Lets cut it down a bit, by splitting */
 		struct malloc_elem *split_pt = RTE_PTR_ADD(elem, new_size);
 		split_pt = RTE_PTR_ALIGN_CEIL(split_pt, CACHE_LINE_SIZE);
 		split_elem(elem, split_pt);
-		split_pt->state = ELEM_FREE;
-		split_pt->next_free = elem->heap->free_head;
-		elem->heap->free_head = split_pt;
+		malloc_elem_free_list_insert(split_pt);
 	}
 	rte_spinlock_unlock(&elem->heap->lock);
 	return 0;
diff --git a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.h b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.h
index cd25384..1d666a5 100644
--- a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.h
+++ b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_elem.h
@@ -46,7 +46,7 @@ enum elem_state {
 struct malloc_elem {
 	struct malloc_heap *heap;
 	struct malloc_elem *volatile prev;      /* points to prev elem in memzone */
-	struct malloc_elem *volatile next_free; /* to make list of free elements */
+	LIST_ENTRY(malloc_elem) free_list;      /* list of free elements in heap */
 	const struct rte_memzone *mz;
 	volatile enum elem_state state;
 	uint32_t pad;
@@ -156,8 +156,7 @@ malloc_elem_can_hold(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size, unsigned align);
  * is much larger than the data block requested, we split the element in two.
  */
 struct malloc_elem *
-malloc_elem_alloc(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size,
-		unsigned align, struct malloc_elem *prev_free);
+malloc_elem_alloc(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size, unsigned align);
 
 /*
  * free a malloc_elem block by adding it to the free list. If the
@@ -174,4 +173,16 @@ malloc_elem_free(struct malloc_elem *elem);
 int
 malloc_elem_resize(struct malloc_elem *elem, size_t size);
 
+/*
+ * Given an element size, compute its freelist index.
+ */
+size_t
+malloc_elem_free_list_index(size_t size);
+
+/*
+ * Add element to its heap's free list.
+ */
+void
+malloc_elem_free_list_insert(struct malloc_elem *elem);
+
 #endif /* MALLOC_ELEM_H_ */
diff --git a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_heap.c b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_heap.c
index 6e99251..a36cd92 100644
--- a/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_heap.c
+++ b/lib/librte_malloc/malloc_heap.c
@@ -114,9 +114,8 @@ malloc_heap_add_memzone(struct malloc_heap *heap, size_t size, unsigned align)
 	const unsigned elem_size = (uintptr_t)end_elem - (uintptr_t)start_elem;
 	malloc_elem_init(start_elem, heap, mz, elem_size);
 	malloc_elem_mkend(end_elem, start_elem);
+	malloc_elem_free_list_insert(start_elem);
 
-	start_elem->next_free = heap->free_head;
-	heap->free_head = start_elem;
 	/* increase heap total size by size of new memzone */
 	heap->total_size+=mz_size - MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD;
 	return 0;
@@ -125,35 +124,25 @@ malloc_heap_add_memzone(struct malloc_heap *heap, size_t size, unsigned align)
 /*
  * Iterates through the freelist for a heap to find a free element
  * which can store data of the required size and with the requested alignment.
- * Returns null on failure, or pointer to element on success, with the pointer
- * to the previous element in the list, if any, being returned in a parameter
- * (to make removing the element from the free list faster).
+ * Returns null on failure, or pointer to element on success.
  */
 static struct malloc_elem *
-find_suitable_element(struct malloc_heap *heap, size_t size,
-		unsigned align, struct malloc_elem **prev)
+find_suitable_element(struct malloc_heap *heap, size_t size, unsigned align)
 {
-	struct malloc_elem *elem, *min_elem, *min_prev;
-	size_t min_sz;
-
-	elem = heap->free_head;
-	min_elem = NULL;
-	min_prev = NULL;
-	min_sz = (size_t) SIZE_MAX;
-	*prev = NULL;
-
-	while(elem){
-		if (malloc_elem_can_hold(elem, size, align)) {
-			if (min_sz > elem->size) {
-				min_elem = elem;
-				*prev = min_prev;
-				min_sz = elem->size;
-			}
+	size_t idx;
+	struct malloc_elem *elem;
+
+	for (idx = malloc_elem_free_list_index(size);
+		idx < RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS; idx++)
+	{
+		for (elem = LIST_FIRST(&heap->free_head[idx]);
+			!!elem; elem = LIST_NEXT(elem, free_list))
+		{
+			if (malloc_elem_can_hold(elem, size, align))
+				return elem;
 		}
-		min_prev = elem;
-		elem = elem->next_free;
 	}
-	return (min_elem);
+	return NULL;
 }
 
 /*
@@ -169,15 +158,14 @@ malloc_heap_alloc(struct malloc_heap *heap,
 	size = CACHE_LINE_ROUNDUP(size);
 	align = CACHE_LINE_ROUNDUP(align);
 	rte_spinlock_lock(&heap->lock);
-	struct malloc_elem *prev, *elem = find_suitable_element(heap,
-			size, align, &prev);
+	struct malloc_elem *elem = find_suitable_element(heap, size, align);
 	if (elem == NULL){
 		if ((malloc_heap_add_memzone(heap, size, align)) == 0)
-			elem = find_suitable_element(heap, size, align, &prev);
+			elem = find_suitable_element(heap, size, align);
 	}
 
 	if (elem != NULL){
-		elem = malloc_elem_alloc(elem, size, align, prev);
+		elem = malloc_elem_alloc(elem, size, align);
 		/* increase heap's count of allocated elements */
 		heap->alloc_count++;
 	}
@@ -193,7 +181,8 @@ int
 malloc_heap_get_stats(const struct malloc_heap *heap,
 		struct rte_malloc_socket_stats *socket_stats)
 {
-	struct malloc_elem *elem = heap->free_head;
+	size_t idx;
+	struct malloc_elem *elem;
 
 	/* Initialise variables for heap */
 	socket_stats->free_count = 0;
@@ -201,13 +190,15 @@ malloc_heap_get_stats(const struct malloc_heap *heap,
 	socket_stats->greatest_free_size = 0;
 
 	/* Iterate through free list */
-	while(elem) {
-		socket_stats->free_count++;
-		socket_stats->heap_freesz_bytes += elem->size;
-		if (elem->size > socket_stats->greatest_free_size)
-			socket_stats->greatest_free_size = elem->size;
-
-		elem = elem->next_free;
+	for (idx = 0; idx < RTE_HEAP_NUM_FREELISTS; idx++) {
+		for (elem = LIST_FIRST(&heap->free_head[idx]);
+			!!elem; elem = LIST_NEXT(elem, free_list))
+		{
+			socket_stats->free_count++;
+			socket_stats->heap_freesz_bytes += elem->size;
+			if (elem->size > socket_stats->greatest_free_size)
+				socket_stats->greatest_free_size = elem->size;
+		}
 	}
 	/* Get stats on overall heap and allocated memory on this heap */
 	socket_stats->heap_totalsz_bytes = heap->total_size;
-- 
1.7.1

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v3 2/2] malloc: fix malloc and free linear complexity
  2014-05-16 12:59 [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v2] malloc: fix malloc and free linear complexity rsanford2
                   ` (2 preceding siblings ...)
  2014-06-23 21:17 ` [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v3 1/2] " Robert Sanford
@ 2014-06-23 21:17 ` Robert Sanford
  3 siblings, 0 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: Robert Sanford @ 2014-06-23 21:17 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: dev

Fix typos and false assumptions in malloc unit tests.

Without enhancements to lib rte_malloc, malloc autotest fails every
second (2nd) run. With enhancements, malloc autotest fails in
function test_multi_alloc_statistics, because we compare the wrong
sets of statistics.

Signed-off-by: Robert Sanford <rsanford2@gmail.com>

---
 app/test/test_malloc.c |   17 +++++++++--------
 1 files changed, 9 insertions(+), 8 deletions(-)

diff --git a/app/test/test_malloc.c b/app/test/test_malloc.c
index 3c38383..bf27eff 100644
--- a/app/test/test_malloc.c
+++ b/app/test/test_malloc.c
@@ -66,7 +66,7 @@
  * ======
  *
  * Allocate some dynamic memory from heap (3 areas). Check that areas
- * don't overlap an that alignment constraints match. This test is
+ * don't overlap and that alignment constraints match. This test is
  * done many times on different lcores simultaneously.
  */
 
@@ -313,9 +313,9 @@ test_big_alloc(void)
 	rte_malloc_get_socket_stats(socket,&post_stats);
 
 	/* Check statistics reported are correct */
-	/* Allocation increase, cannot be the same as before big allocation */
-	if (post_stats.heap_totalsz_bytes == pre_stats.heap_totalsz_bytes) {
-		printf("Malloc statistics are incorrect - heap_totalz_bytes\n");
+	/* Allocation may increase, or may be the same as before big allocation */
+	if (post_stats.heap_totalsz_bytes < pre_stats.heap_totalsz_bytes) {
+		printf("Malloc statistics are incorrect - heap_totalsz_bytes\n");
 		return -1;
 	}
 	/* Check that allocated size adds up correctly */
@@ -336,7 +336,8 @@ test_big_alloc(void)
 		return -1;
 	}
 	/* New blocks now available - just allocated 1 but also 1 new free */
-	if(post_stats.free_count != pre_stats.free_count ) {
+	if (post_stats.free_count != pre_stats.free_count &&
+			post_stats.free_count != pre_stats.free_count - 1) {
 		printf("Malloc statistics are incorrect - free_count\n");
 		return -1;
 	}
@@ -425,7 +426,7 @@ test_multi_alloc_statistics(void)
 	}
 
 	/* Make sure that we didn't touch our greatest chunk: 2 * 11M)  */
-	if (second_stats.greatest_free_size != pre_stats.greatest_free_size) {
+	if (post_stats.greatest_free_size != pre_stats.greatest_free_size) {
 		printf("Incorrect heap statistics: Greatest free size \n");
 		return -1;
 	}
@@ -1036,11 +1037,11 @@ test_malloc(void)
 
 	ret = test_multi_alloc_statistics();
 	if (ret < 0) {
-		printf("test_muti_alloc_statistics() failed\n");
+		printf("test_multi_alloc_statistics() failed\n");
 		return ret;
 	}
 	else
-		printf("test_muti_alloc_statistics() passed\n");
+		printf("test_multi_alloc_statistics() passed\n");
 
 	return 0;
 }
-- 
1.7.1

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* Re: [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v3 0/2] malloc: fix malloc and free linear complexity
  2014-06-23 21:17 ` [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v3 0/2] " Robert Sanford
@ 2014-06-24 14:55   ` De Lara Guarch, Pablo
  2014-06-26 12:37     ` Thomas Monjalon
  0 siblings, 1 reply; 8+ messages in thread
From: De Lara Guarch, Pablo @ 2014-06-24 14:55 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Robert Sanford, dev

> -----Original Message-----
> From: dev [mailto:dev-bounces@dpdk.org] On Behalf Of Robert Sanford
> Sent: Monday, June 23, 2014 10:17 PM
> To: dev@dpdk.org
> Subject: [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v3 0/2] malloc: fix malloc and free linear
> complexity
> 
> Comments on previous versions of this patch:
> http://dpdk.org/ml/archives/dev/2014-May/002297.html
> http://dpdk.org/ml/archives/dev/2014-June/003518.html
> 
> Additional changes from original to v3:
> * Reduce the minimum-sized block that we put on a free list when
>   splitting a larger block, from 192 to 64. Although memory is
>   plentiful, why waste 64 and 128-byte (plus overhead) blocks?
> 
> -#define MIN_DATA_SIZE (CACHE_LINE_SIZE * 2)
> +#define MIN_DATA_SIZE (CACHE_LINE_SIZE)
> 
> -       if (old_elem_size <= MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD + MIN_DATA_SIZE){
> +       if (old_elem_size < MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD + MIN_DATA_SIZE){
> 
> -       if (elem->size - new_size > MIN_DATA_SIZE +
> MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD){
> +       if (elem->size - new_size >= MIN_DATA_SIZE +
> MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD){
> 
> Changes from v2 to v3:
> * Change the size ranges of the five free lists per heap. The first
>   list will effectively contain blocks of size [64,256].

Acked-by: Pablo de Lara <pablo.de.lara.guarch@intel.com>

Thanks,
Pablo

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

* Re: [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v3 0/2] malloc: fix malloc and free linear complexity
  2014-06-24 14:55   ` De Lara Guarch, Pablo
@ 2014-06-26 12:37     ` Thomas Monjalon
  0 siblings, 0 replies; 8+ messages in thread
From: Thomas Monjalon @ 2014-06-26 12:37 UTC (permalink / raw)
  To: Robert Sanford; +Cc: dev

> From: Robert Sanford
> > Comments on previous versions of this patch:
> > http://dpdk.org/ml/archives/dev/2014-May/002297.html
> > http://dpdk.org/ml/archives/dev/2014-June/003518.html
> > 
> > Additional changes from original to v3:
> > * Reduce the minimum-sized block that we put on a free list when
> > 
> >   splitting a larger block, from 192 to 64. Although memory is
> >   plentiful, why waste 64 and 128-byte (plus overhead) blocks?
> > 
> > -#define MIN_DATA_SIZE (CACHE_LINE_SIZE * 2)
> > +#define MIN_DATA_SIZE (CACHE_LINE_SIZE)
> > 
> > -       if (old_elem_size <= MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD + MIN_DATA_SIZE){
> > +       if (old_elem_size < MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD + MIN_DATA_SIZE){
> > 
> > -       if (elem->size - new_size > MIN_DATA_SIZE +
> > MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD){
> > +       if (elem->size - new_size >= MIN_DATA_SIZE +
> > MALLOC_ELEM_OVERHEAD){
> > 
> > Changes from v2 to v3:
> > * Change the size ranges of the five free lists per heap. The first
> > 
> >   list will effectively contain blocks of size [64,256].
> 
> Acked-by: Pablo de Lara <pablo.de.lara.guarch@intel.com>

Applied for version 1.7.0.

Thanks for this brave rework.
-- 
Thomas

^ permalink raw reply	[flat|nested] 8+ messages in thread

end of thread, other threads:[~2014-06-26 12:37 UTC | newest]

Thread overview: 8+ messages (download: mbox.gz / follow: Atom feed)
-- links below jump to the message on this page --
2014-05-16 12:59 [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v2] malloc: fix malloc and free linear complexity rsanford2
2014-06-17 16:05 ` De Lara Guarch, Pablo
2014-06-17 16:29   ` Robert Sanford
2014-06-23 21:17 ` [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v3 0/2] " Robert Sanford
2014-06-24 14:55   ` De Lara Guarch, Pablo
2014-06-26 12:37     ` Thomas Monjalon
2014-06-23 21:17 ` [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v3 1/2] " Robert Sanford
2014-06-23 21:17 ` [dpdk-dev] [PATCH v3 2/2] " Robert Sanford

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